The Continental Congress was the early form of Government of the U.S.A. for 16 years (1774-1789). It was made up of 55 Representatives (35 Moors, 20 European Sons) from the original 13 States. The Continental Congress first came together to protest certain measures of the British Parliament. It also urged the colonist to arm themselves in defense of the Rights. Before this meeting closed, the Delegates agreed to meet a second time. By the time the second meeting was held, the American Revolutionary War had started.
These 35 Moors stemmed from five of the Thirteen States: New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, and North Carolina (SEE Judge Charles Curtis’ Dissenting Opinion vs. Justice Taney concerning the DRED SCOTT Decision).
The United States of America did not have an official written Government until the Articles of Confederation was signed in 1781 which was right before it won its Independence from Britain.
And now, the FOURTEEN PRESIDENTS:
1. Peyton Randolph (1721-1775)- A pre-Revolutionary American Politician born in James City County [Williamsburg], Virginia and educated at the College of William and Mary. An influential member of the Virginia House of Burgesses from 1748 until his death. In 1764, he rallied the opposition of the Burgesses (Legislators) against the Threatened Stamp Act. In 1766, he became Speaker of the House which he retained for the rest of his life. Randolph was appointed to the first Continental Congress at Philadelphia County and served as its President in September of 1774 and, then afterwards in May of 1775 as he served again as the 3rd President which is the 1st President of the Second Continental Congress.
2. Arthur Henry Middleton (1742-1787)- A Planter, Legislator, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, and one of the leaders in the controversies that preceded the outbreak of the American Revolution, born in Middleton Place near Charleston County, South Carolina. After completing his education in England, he returned to South Carolina in 1763 and was elected to its Legislature, the House of Assembly. He served as President of the Continental Congress in October 1774. Between 1775 and 1776, he was a member of the Council of Safety which was a committee that provided leadership for the State’s preparations for Revolution. He served on the Legislative Committee that drafted its State’s Constitution and was a delegate to the Continental Congress between 1776 to 1778. At the Siege of Charleston in 1780, he served in the Militia and was taken prisoner when the City fell to the British. He was sent to Saint Johns County [Saint Augustine], Florida as a P.O.W. After being exchanged in 1781, he became a member of the Continental Congress, placed back in the House of Assembly, and went on the original Board of Trustees of the College of Charleston.
3. John Hancock (1737-1793)- An American Patriot, Statesman, first to sign the Declaration of Independence, born in Norfolk County [Braintree (Now part of Quincy)], Massachusetts and educated at Harvard College (Now Harvard University). After graduating in 1754, he joined the Mercentile Firm of his Uncle and Guardian, the Colonial Businessman Thomas Hancock. In 1764, he inherited the Business and a substantial fortune. He was elected to the State’s Legislature two years later. He also served as the President of the United States in November of 1785 to June of 1786. He was member of the Continental Congress from 1775 to 1780 serving as a Presiding Officer during the first two years until October 1777. He was the first Governor of Massachusetts from 1780 to 1785 and 1789 to his death. He initially opposed the Constitution for the United States of America but later supported it and served as President of the Massachusetts Convention that approved this Constitution.
4. Henry Laurens (1724-1792)- An American Colonial Statesman born in Charleston County, South Carolina, where he was educated and became a successful Merchant there. In 1764, he became a Planter. He served almost continuously in the Colonial Assembly from 1757 to 1774. In 1775, he was President of the State’s Legislature then Vice President of South Carolina from 1776 to 1777 then to become a member of the Continental Congress serving as President starting in November of 1777 to December of 1778. Congress appointed him as an Envoy to negotiate a Treaty with the Dutch but he was captured at Sea by the British and imprisoned in the Tower of London. In 1781, he was exchanged for British General Charles Cornwallis who had surrendered. Late in 1782, Laurens was a signer of the Preliminary Peace Treaty ending the American Revolution and later returned to South Carolina.
5. John Jay (1745-1829)- American Statesman, Jurist, and the first Chief Justice of the United States of America born in New York City and educated at King’s College (Now Columbia University). He was admitted to the Bar in 1768 and represented the point of view of the American Merchants in protesting British restrictions on the Commercial activities of the Colonies. He was elected to the Continental Congress in 1774 and again in 1775. He drafted the first State’s Constitution and was appointed Chief Justice of the State in 1777. The following year, he was again elected to the Continental Congress and chosen as President. In Paris in 1782, he was one of the Commissioners who negotiated the Treaty of Paris ending the American Revolution. From 1784 to 1789, he was Secretary of Foreign Affairs. The ineffectiveness of the Articles of Confederation led him to become a proponent of a strong National Government. With Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, he wrote the series of Articles called ‘The Federalist’ which urged Ratification of the Constitution for the U.S.A. In 1789, President George Washington appointed him as Chief Justice. In 1794 when war with Britain threatened due to controversies over the Treaty of Paris, he was appointed by Washington to negotiate a settlement. He went to Great Britain and concluded the agreement known as the ‘Jay Treaty’. On his return, he discovered that during his absence he had been elected Governor of New York State. He resigned from the Court and served as Governor from 1795 to 1801. He spent the rest of his life in retirement.
6. Samuel Huntington (1731-1796)- President of the Continental Congress and the Congress of the Confederation from September 1779 to July 1781, signer of the Declaration of Independence, and Governor of his place of birth, Connecticut, where he served in its Assembly in 1765 and was appointed as a Judge of the Superior Court in 1774. He was a member of the Governor’s Council from 1775 to 1783 after which time, he returned to Connecticut to become a Chief Justice of its State Supreme Court in 1784, then becoming a Lieutenant Governor in 1785, then becoming a Governor in 1786. He was re-elected each year thereafter until his death.
7. Thomas McKean (1734-1817)- President of the Continental Congress from July 1781 to November 1781 serving as both a delegate to the Continental Congress and the Congress of the Confederation starting at 1774 to 1783. He was a Delaware signer of the Declaration of Independence and was Governor of Pennsylvania from 1799 to 1808 during which times, he restrained Radical Politicians whose plans were to reduce the Commonwealth to a condition of Anarchy. Born in Chester County [New London], Pennsylvania. He studied Law and wrote most of the Delaware State Constitution.
8. John Hanson (1721-1783)- Born in Maryland being a Moorish Patriot for this State in the American Revolution. When the Articles of Confederation were ratified on March 1, 1781, no elections were held or even discussed for selecting a new president. Instead, Samuel Huntington continued to serve as President of Congress until he asked to be relieved due to ill health on July 6, 1781. On July 9, Samuel Johnston was selected as Huntington’s replacement, but he declined the office the next day, and so Thomas McKean was elected as the next presiding officer. This is the reason why John Hanson was classified as the First President of the New Nation under the Articles of Confederation. He was elected by Congress as the President of the United States in Congress Assembled, therefore, being the First President of the United States. As a member of the State’s Assembly from 1757, he became active in the resistance to British Tax measures in the 1760’s and was an early supporter of Independence. As a delegate to the Continental Congress and the Congress of the Confederation from 1780 to 1782, he signed the Articles of Confederation and played an important part in persuading New York and Virginia to give up their claims to Western Territory.
9. Elias Boudinot (1740-1821)- Born in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, was a prominent Patriot during the American Revolution. Although he initially believed that “Firm dependence in the Mother Country [was] essential”, he was converted to the cause of Independence and served twice from 1777 to 1778 and 1781 to 1784. He was President of the United States from 1782 to 1783. He helped bring about the Ratification by New Jersey of the Constitution for the United States of America and was a member of Congress under this Constitution from 1789 to 1795. He was a Director of the U.S. Mint from 1795 to 1805 and the founder and the first President of the American Bible Society from 1816 to 1821. He authored the books “A Star in the West” and “Age of Revelation”. He argued for the rights of Asiatic citizens, and sponsored students to the Board School for Tribal Moors (Native Americans) in Connecticut. One of these, a young Cherokee named Gallegina Watie, stayed with him while traveling to the school. The two so impressed each other that Gallegina asked for and was given permission to use his name, and was afterward known as Elias Boudinot.
10. Thomas Mifflin (1744-1800)- An American Statesman and Soldier born in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, was educated at the College of Philadelphia (Now called the University of Pennsylvania). In the agitation over the British policy preceding the American Revolution, he championed Colonial Rights and was elected a member of the First Continental Congress. After the outbreak of hostilities, he was appointed Aide-De-Camp to General George Washington and later the Quartermaster General of the Revolutionary Army which was a Post he resigned after charges of mismanagement were brought against him. In 1777, he was accused of being a Ringleader of the “Conway Cabal” which was a group that aimed at substituting General Horatio Gates for Washington as Commander-In-Chief. This intrigue failed. He severed his connection with the Army in 1779 and later became a delegate to Congress and, afterwards, became the President of the United States from 1783 to 1784. He was also a member of the Federal Constitutional Convention in 1787 and the first State Governor of Pennsylvania from 1790 to 1799.
11. Richard Henry Lee (1732-1794)- President of the United States from November 1784 to November 1785, was a Leader of the American Revolution. He was brother of Arthur and Francis Lee. He was born in Westmoreland County [Stratford], Virginia. He entered the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1758 and in his Freshman speech proposed a Resolution restricting the Importation of Slaves. He remained a member of the Virginia House until 1775. With Thomas Jefferson and Patrick Henry, he was prominent in defending the Rights of the Colonies against Great Britain. He was among those who proposed the Committees of Correspondence that organized American resistance to British Political and Economic pressures. In 1773, he became a member of that Committee in Virginia and was a delegate to the Continental Congress from 1774 to 1779. On June 7th, 1776, he offered a Resolution that ultimately gave rise to the Declaration of Independence which he later signed. In the debates on the Constitution for the U.S.A., he opposed the views of the Federalist Party because he felt that this Constitution, as proposed, infringed on the States’ Rights. In defense of his principles, he proposed the Tenth Amendment which was finally adopted. He was a United States Senator from March 1789 to October 1792 and was President Pro Tempore from April 1792 to October 1792. He died at his Plantation.
12. Nathaniel Gorham (1738-1796)- President of the United States from May 1786 to November 1786. Born in Suffolk County [Charlestown (part of Boston)], Massachusetts. He was a signer of the Constitution for the U.S.A. He served in the State’s Legislature from 1771 to 1775 and also served several terms of the Continental Congress. In the Constitutional Convention, he became President of the Committee of the whole for several weeks and urged a strong central Government.
13. Arthur Saint Clair (1737-1818)- President of the United States from February 1787 to November 1787. He was born in Scotland, he served in the British Army from 1757 to 1762 during the French and Indian War before settling in Pennsylvania where he held local Office. Hewas a Politician and an American soldier serving in the Continental Army from 1775 to 1781 during the American Revolutionary War where he rose to the rank of Major General but lost his command after a controversial retreat. He also was a Senior General of the U.S. Army in 1791 and appointed a Governor of a certain number of Territories during the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. He was a member of the Pennsylvania Council of Censors in 1783, and was elected a delegate to the Confederation Congress, serving from November 1785 to November 1787. Chaos ruled the day in early 1787 with Shays’ Rebellion in full force and the states refusing to settle land disputes or contribute to the now six year-old Federal Government. He died in poverty.
14. Cyrus Griffin (1749-1810)- President of the United States from January 1788 to March 1789 was born in the Commonwealth of Virginia and served as a Lawyer. He was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates and a delegate to the Continental Congress from 1778 to 1781. Griffin was president of the Supreme Court of the Admiralty from its creation until its abolition, was commissioner to the Creek Nation in 1789, and was Judge of the United States District Court of Virginia from December 1789, until his death.
There is No “Fourteenth Amendment”!
Posted By: RumorMail
Date: Saturday, 4-Jan-2014 23:40:43
There is No “Fourteenth Amendment”! By David Lawrence U.S. News & World Report September 27, 1957
A MISTAKEN BELIEF — that there is a valid article in the Constitution known as the “Fourteenth Amendment” — is responsible for the Supreme Court decision of 1954 and the ensuing controversy over desegregation in the public schools of America. No such amendment was ever legally ratified by three fourths of the States of the Union as required by the Constitution itself. The so-called “Fourteenth Amendment” was dubiously proclaimed by the Secretary of State on July 20, 1868. The President shared that doubt. There were 37 States in the Union at the time, so ratification by at least 28 was necessary to make the amendment an integral part of the Constitution. Actually, only 21 States legally ratified it. So it failed of ratification.
The undisputed record, attested by official journals and the unanimous writings of historians, establishes these events as occurring in 1867 and 1868:
Outside the South, six States — New Jersey, Ohio, Kentucky, California, Delaware and Maryland — failed to ratify the proposed amendment.
In the South, ten States — Texas, Arkansas, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi and Louisiana — by formal action of their legislatures, rejected it under the normal processes of civil law.
A total of 16 legislatures out of 37 failed legally to ratify the “Fourteenth Amendment.”
Congress — which had deprived the Southern States of their seats in the Senate — did not lawfully pass the resolution of submission in the first instance.
The Southern States which had rejected the amendment were coerced by a federal statute passed in 1867 that took away the right to vote or hold office from all citizens who had served in the Confederate Army. Military governors were appointed and instructed to prepare the roll of voters. All this happened in spite of the presidential proclamation of amnesty previously issued by the President. New legislatures were thereupon chosen and forced to “ratify” under penalty of continued exile from the Union. In Louisiana, a General sent down from the North presided over the State legislature.
Abraham Lincoln had declared many times that the Union was “inseparable” and “indivisible.” After his death, and when the war was over, the ratification by the Southern States of the Thirteenth Amendment, abolishing slavery, had been accepted as legal. But Congress in the 1867 law imposed the specific conditions under which the Southern States would be “entitled to representation in Congress.”
Congress, in passing the 1867 law that declared the Southern States could not have their seats in either the Senate or House in the next session unless they ratified the “Fourteenth Amendment,” took an unprecedented step. No such right — to compel a State by an act of Congress to ratify a constitutional amendment — is to be found anywhere in the Constitution. Nor has this procedure ever been sanctioned by the Supreme Court of the United States.
President Andrew Johnson publicly denounced this law as unconstitutional. But it was passed over his veto.
Secretary of State Seward was on the spot in July 1868 when the various “ratifications” of a spurious nature were placed before him. The legislatures of Ohio and New Jersey had notified him that they rescinded their earlier action of ratification. He said in his official proclamation that he was not authorized as Secretary of State “to determine and decide doubtful questions as to the authenticity of the organization of State legislatures or as to the power of any State legislature to recall a previous act or resolution of ratification.” He added that the amendment was valid “if the resolutions of the legislatures of Ohio and New Jersey, ratifying the aforesaid amendment, are to be deemed as remaining of full force and effect, notwithstanding the subsequent resolutions of the legislatures of these States.” This was a very big “if.” It will be noted that the real issue, therefore, is not only whether the forced “ratification” by the ten Southern States was lawful, but whether the withdrawal by the legislatures of Ohio and New Jersey — two Northern States — was legal. The right of a State, by action of its legislature, to change its mind at any time before the final proclamation of ratification is issued by the Secretary of State has been confirmed in connection with other constitutional amendments.
The Oregon Legislature in October 1868 — three months after the Secretary’s proclamation was issued — passed a rescinding resolution, which argued that the “Fourteenth Amendment” had not been ratified by three fourths of the States and that the “ratifications” in the Southern States were “usurpations, unconstitutional, revolutionary and void” and that, “until such ratification is completed, any State has a right to withdraw its assent to any proposed amendment.”
What do the historians say about all this? The Encyclopedia Americana states:
“Reconstruction added humiliation to suffering…. Eight years of crime, fraud, and corruption followed and it was State legislatures composed of Negroes, carpetbaggers and scalawags who obeyed the orders of the generals and ratified the amendment.”
W. E. Woodward, in his famous work, “A New American History?” published in 1936, says:
“To get a clear idea of the succession of events let us review [President Andrew] Johnson’s actions in respect to the ex-Confederate States.
“In May, 1865, he issued a Proclamation of Amnesty to former rebels. Then he established provisional governments in all the Southern States. They were instructed to call Constitutional Conventions. They did. New State governments were elected. White men only had the suffrage the Fifteenth Amendment establishing equal voting rights had not yet been passed]. Senators and Representatives were chosen, but when they appeared at the opening of Congress they were refused admission. The State governments, however, continued to function during 1866.
“Now we are in 1867. In the early days of that year [Thaddeus] Stevens brought in, as chairman of the House Reconstruction Committee, a bill that proposed to sweep all the Southern State governments into the wastebasket. The South was to be put under military rule.
“The bill passed. It was vetoed by Johnson and passed again over his veto. In the Senate it was amended in such fashion that any State could escape from military rule and be restored to its full rights by ratifying the Fourteenth Amendment and admitting black as well as white men to the polls.”
In challenging its constitutionality, President Andrew Johnson said in his veto message:
“I submit to Congress whether this measure is not in its whole character, scope and object without precedent and without authority, in palpable conflict with the plainest provisions of the Constitution, and utterly destructive of those great principles of liberty and humanity for which our ancestors on both sides of the Atlantic have shed so much blood and expended so much treasure.”
Many historians have applauded Johnson’s words. Samuel Eliot Morison and Henry Steele Commager, known today as “liberals,” wrote in their book, “The Growth of the American Republic”:
“Johnson returned the bill with a scorching message arguing the unconstitutionality of the whole thing, and most impartial students have agreed with his reasoning.”
James Truslow Adams, another noted historian, writes in his “History of the United States”:
“The Supreme Court had decided three months earlier, in the Milligan case, … that military courts were unconstitutional except under such war conditions as might make the operation of civil courts impossible, but the President pointed out in vain that practically the whole of the new legislation was unconstitutional. … There was even talk in Congress of impeaching the Supreme Court for its decisions! The legislature had run amok and was threatening both the Executive and the Judiciary.”
Actually, President Johnson was impeached, but the move failed by one vote in the Senate.
The Supreme Court, in case after case, refused to pass on the illegal activities involved in “ratification.” It said simply that they were acts of the “political departments of the Government.” This, of course, was a convenient device of avoidance. The Court has adhered to that position ever since Reconstruction Days.
Andrew C. McLaughlin, whose “Constitutional History of the United States” is a standard work, writes:
“Can a State which is not a State and not recognized as such by Congress, perform the supreme duty of ratifying an amendment to the fundamental law? Or does a State — by congressional thinking — cease to be a State for some purposes but not for others?”
This is the tragic history of the so-called “Fourteenth Amendment” — a record that is a disgrace to free government and a “government of law.”
Isn’t the use of military force to override local government what we deplored in Hungary?
It is never too late to correct injustice. The people of America should have an opportunity to pass on an amendment to the Constitution that sets forth the right of the Federal Government to control education and regulate attendance at public schools either with federal power alone or concurrently with the States.
That’s the honest way, the just way to deal with the problem of segregation or integration in the schools. Until such an amendment is adopted, the “Fourteenth Amendment” should be considered as null and void.
There is only one supreme tribunal — it is the people themselves. Their sovereign will is expressed through the procedures set forth in the Constitution itself.
[OCR’d text from U.S. News & World Report, September 27, 1957, page 140 et seq.]
One of Livorno’s most famous landmarks is a monument located near the Port of Livorno. This work of art, which dates back to the Renaissance period, is called “Monumento dei quattro mori” (Monument of the Four Moors). This powerful monument, depicting four Moors, was dedicated to Grand Duke Ferdinando I.
I Quattro Mori –At the end of the XVI century the works for the realization of the new fortified city of Livorno started. In order to celebrate this enterprise and the triumphs of the Order of the knights of Santo Stefano against barbaric pirates, Ferdinando de’Medici erected a monument in his honor. The statue of the Granduca was commissioned to the sculptor Giovanni Bandini, than realized it in Carrara in 1595; it was moved to Livorno in 1601. Subsequently, in 1621 Pietro Tacca completed the monument with the four chained Moors, that the sculptor made between 1623 and 1626. The monument is constituted by the Four Moors in bronze at the base of a high pedestal, over which there is the statue of Ferdinando I. The Granduca is represented with the uniform of the Order of the knights of Santo Stefano, the military institution founded in order to fight the Ottomans and the pirates in the Mediterranean Sea. The Four Moors constitute the most important part of the work: the emphasized torsions and the grimaces of pain represent the condition of imprisonment of the subjects, with great realism and elegance. (source: Tuscany Travels)
The Four Moors is the oldest and most popular monument in Leghorn, it symbolizes the winner of Medici against pirates in the Mediterranean Sea.
The monument consist of two parts, one in marble and the other one in bronze. The former, in Carrara marble, shows Ferdinando I dei Medici in the uniform of the Order of the Knights of St. Stephan, a navy establishment to fight the piracy which was an obstacle to free trade and the development of the growning Medicean port. Created by the Florentine sculptor Giovanni Bandini, it was terminated in 1595, but only in 1617 the statue was placed on its pedestal.
The Four Moors, works of considerable merit by the Carrara sculptor Pietro Tacca, a pupil of Giambologna, were added between 1623 and 1626.
In 1861 the statue was moved about 20 mt to its present position. On the occasion it was completely renovated. During the Second World War it was once again dismantled to protect it from aerial bombardments. At the end of the war it was returned to its place. (source: Geocaching)
The Four Moors – a symbol of Livorno Overlooking the old Medici Port, right at the port end of Via Grande, you cannot fail to notice the statue known as I Quattro Mori (‘the four moors’) which is undoubtedly Livorno’s most famous landmark. The monument, which is a symbol of Livorno, was carried out in two stages. The upper part, portraying Ferdinando I, the Medici Grand Duke, was sculpted in marble by Giovanni Bandini by order of Ferdinando’s son, Cosimo II, to honour his father. It was erected in 1617, nine years after Grand Duke Ferdinando’s death.
The four bronze moors were added between 1623 and 1626 and are the work of the Carrara sculptor, Pietro Tacca, who was Giambologna’s greatest pupil. He used two slaves as a model for his work and it is said that in return for posing for several months these two men were then set free.
The younger of the two moved to Florence and started a family there. On holidays he used to bring his family to Livorno so that they could admire his bronze likeness!
The whole monument is supposed to represent Tuscany’s victories over pirate attacks.
Province of Livorno, Toscana (Tuscany), Italy. This is a map of Italy that identifies the province of Livorno. The province of Livorno is a part of the Toscana (Tuscany) region.
The Municipio with Sardinian Flag (Cagliari Photos}. The Municipio, or town hall, of Cagliari displays three flags – European Union, Italy, and Sardinia, the flag with the Quattro Mori, or four Moors.
The Quattro Mori on Cagliari Municipio (Cagliari Photos). The quattro mori, the symbol of Sardegna, are displayed atop the Cagliari Municipio, or town hall.
Sardinian Flag Quattro Mori
Map of the Province of Sassari, Sardegna (Sardinia), Italy. The province of Sassari is a part of the Sardegna (Sardinia) region.
Fountain of the Four Moors: Fontana Dei Quattro Mori, Marino, Lazio, Italia
The Fountain of the Four Moors during the Italian Grape Festival
Lazio (Latium), Italy. Lazio is a region in the center of Italy along the Tyrrhenian Sea; with five provinces, one of which is Roma (Rome).
I peeped @AVAETC Ava DuVernay’s documentary entitled “13th” on Monday, October 10, 2016! I was impressed with it’s coverage of how History, Law, and Race are connected. It was refreshing to see the cover get lifted from off the machine (ALEC) behind a large portion of our current legislation. I am so grateful The Creator moved her spirit and those of the entire cast and crew to produce this film in order to begin a much needed public discussion on the topic of the 13th Amendment. If there’s a part two in the works, I offer this article as a starting point for research covering how the ORIGINAL 13th Amendment with 20 sections was passed (ratified) on November 18, 1865 by 3/4 of the Several States and is still the Law but has been suppressed. My question is why was the original amendment suppressed and replaced with the 13th Amendment highlighted in this poignant film?
The actual 13th Amendment with 20 Sections contains and clearly explains how those who were freed from slavery after its abolishment were to receive compensation, land, free education, and other vital necessities to restore them into becoming productive Citizens.
The key word to begin our discussion is *Public. The relationship between the Public and Law is interconnected.
Law effects The Public, The Public affects Law.
*Public: Henry Black’s Revised Fourth Edition Law Dictionary defines public when it’s used as a noun (a person, place, or thing) and an adjective (that which describes a noun) as:
So as we now understand how public is defined in Law we realize this term relates to “all the people of a particular place; the body of the people at large, without reference to the geographical limits of any corporation like a city, town or county; the whole body of people.” If we keep this in mind while we continue on, then it’s simple after one is shown sound information to see that when we use certain terms which do not properly identify or address a particular group of people our efforts lose some of their effectiveness with the rest of the general public.
“People of Color”, “Blacks/black people”, “African Americans”, “brown people”, “Negros” were frequently used terms throughout 13th by activists, scholars, entertainers, and others. However, usage of such terms, especially if there’s no part two in development, is where 13th lost a bit of its punch for me. Noble Drew Ali wrote in the Circle Seven Chapter 47 Keys 9 and 10 “According to all true and Divine records of the human race, there is no negro, black, or colored race attached to the human family […] 10. What your ancient forefathers and mothers were, you are today without doubt or contradiction.”
The increased application of these terms started when they were first applied to the autochthonous, original, aboriginal and indigenous peoples of and in the Americas (MRS; Moors/Muurs) publicly in 1779 when those of Moorish descent were stripped of their nationality in 1774 by colonizers and slaveholders of European descent. Therefore, any attempt for true political, social, economic change, and protection of our Human Rights utilizing any of those aforementioned terms are rendered ineffective in the general public including courts of Law which, in my opinion, is one purpose the film was created and that is to seek public redress for the issues highlighted throughout the film due to its inclusion of interviews with law professors, current and former members of the U.S. Congress, and U.S. Presidential nominees.
Now, one of the issues I’ve come across with a few of those of so called African ancestry and born in America is that when most of them whom I’ve come in contact with and have tried to explain to them the fact that our nationality was taken from us ask me for a reference, some more subtly than others, tend to be seeking a source that comes from a European or Eurocentric so called “white publication” or some other reference deemed “publicly valid” and accepted by the dominant Anglo culture of thought and outlook rather than Moorish Americans. The point I raise with this line of thinking is that most of these well intentioned folks forget in those moments of reasoning is that if so called “white people” have systematically hidden, distorted, or erased parts of our historical legacies of fact to propagate their alleged superiority while promoting our stupidity, laziness, and lower-self based activities, then what purpose does it serve him/her to publicly validate the keys and steps towards our actual freedom?
A large portion of what the European has done in this country and others was planned behind closed doors, kept in secret, and then executed or performed openly in public theater. This clandestine activity still takes place today. Unfortunately, since our public educational system is controlled by members of these same clandestine groups, melanin rich (olive, dark olive skinned) people of the strongest minds fall victim to the thought and research patterns of melanin recessive processes and if information such as the importance of birthrights and nationality comes from others who may not have high school diplomas, college B.A.’s, Masters, Ph.D.’s, or a show on the History Channel, it is quite often rejected and or so acutely scrutinized then ignored because these well intentioned brothers and sisters have often taken on the world outlook of those born in America whom also suffer and harm others due to their colorable educational training.
Black’s Law Dictionary Revised Fourth Edition defines *colorable as:
“Colorable Law” or the” Color of Law” are legal phrases that refer to the semblance or appearance of law but actually is Not Law at all! The phrase “People of Color” can, and is, also looked upon in the same light when viewed from a lawful and legal context in public. Remember, there are existing laws against public slander, libel, and defamation when an individual or group makes false statements which injures another individual or group of people. (Seek a Law Dictionary for definitions of these terms.) Therefore, when addressing why issues such as mass incarceration, police brutality or excessive force happen to certain people in the public, the phrase “people of color” then equates to “something like a people but not quite a people.” In other words, what is actually being communicated is that those people are Not lawfully recognized because all beings of the Human family have free national descent names that, unless man or woman’s powers extends beyond the Great God’s powers, cannot change. It’s not emotional. And, no matter how many emotional appeals a melanin rich individual or group makes to those operating a free national government, those appeals no matter how emotionally charged with validity, will never be properly nor fully recognized until those same individuals properly recognize Themselves first!
Black’s Law Dictionary Revised Fourth Edition defines the word *Color and the phrase *Colorable Law:
Acceptance begins with One’s learning the knowledge of, then proclaiming One’s own free national descent name to the public. The first step to learning this is by enrolling in The Moorish School of Law and History and taking the three courses designed to help and teach those of African descent or calling themselves black or African American, Hispanic, Latino or any other colorable name in North America what their actual nationality and birthright is. Remember, just because someone who looks like you said it’s okay to publicly call yourself and those who look like you other than what your Ancestors were does not automatically make it true. “[…] Are you a mastermind and do not know that man and woman knows naught by being told?” -Prophet YHShAY/Issa/Jesus, The Circle Seven.
All of us need to study and keep studying!
Melanin rich people in America (Moors) are known for being some of the most religious and spiritual people on Earth but yet when it comes to acting on the lines of claiming and utilizing knowledge leading towards their actual freedom it seems like old cliches and excuses like, “I believe in the whole Bible, Quran, Torah/Tanach, Diamond Sutras, Vedas, etc. all except, that part” syndrome kicks in. In other words, apparently, we believe what’s convenient at any given time as long as the so called “white man and woman” are in agreement with it or have said it’s true first.
However, in closing, once again I’d like to thank and send much love to Ava DuVernay, the cast, and crew of 13th as well as the people of NETFLIX for having the courage to release such a timely film. And, since it is now online for the entire world and public to review and study, I share these final thoughts and definitions from Blacks Law Dictionary Revised Fourth Edition in regards to *Public character, *Public convenience, *Public interest, and *Public law.
13th as well as all the other publicly recorded footage captured throughout the United States of America and posted on social media everywhere is done in order to correct and change the mindsets of the public who views them. They are presented for public recognition of issues which have gone half addressed for far too long. They are disseminated because there is a public need for real justice. The public interest is vested in the issues surrounding these audio/video clips, films, and photos irregardless of which particular city, town, or village these horrible things take place. The content of these mediums portray the effect of current Public Law. However, it’s only when those of Moorish descent honor their Ancient Foremothers and Forefathers and accept their true nationality by realizing they are not colors or colorable brands (names) which actually delude to them being considered a mental slave (minority) then and only then can the door to true justice be opened.
She’s using slave terminology, but making lots of sense none the less. It’s time for the Moabitess to love, honour, and respect the Moabite man. And to do so without playing into the systems in play to hold him down: making him feel bad for not being able to find work, using sex as a weapon, and thinking that because you can earn a living on your own that your home does not need his presence and guidance. #rebuildthemoabitefamily
In school they told us two good myths. One was of G.W. chopping down the cherry tree and the other was of old honest Abe who supposedly never told a lie.
Back when this country, as we know it, was first being formed by the rebels from Europe who decided that they wanted to be independent of their motherland, they petitioned to the then existing world empires for sovereignty…which basically means that they were asking the empires for permission to be granted the right to call and govern themselves as a nation.
No existing empire would grant them that permission. After continuous petitioning, finally the Empire of the Moors granted them permission. Because the Moors were an Islamic nation, no melaninated person designating themselves as a Moor or Muslim could be enslaved. This was a part of the treaty. What George Washington did after they obtained their sovereignty was “to take the Moorish flag, fold it up and lock it in a safe”…thereby leaving no sign or symbol of the empire or people who granted them sovereignty to be seen.
The Moorish flag looked like a big cherry in the middle of a blue background, therefore it was the cherry tree that granted this country the right to become a nation, and with the flag locked away, any and all darker skinned Moors were thereby designated to be enslaved.
The country became known as “The United States Of America”. Once the United States Of America (The Republic) went corporate their “corporate name” became known as the “United States”, There is a legal difference. Furthermore, we said; I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America, and TO THE REPUBLIC FOR WHICH IT STANDS. “Excuse me ! I Know yall thought you were living in a Democracy…but where did you learn that lie from when we were already told when we were young that “THIS IS A REPUBLIC” NOT A DEMOCRACY….AND YET WE FOOLISHLY LET OUR PEOPLE GO OFF TO FIGHT IN THE NAME OF A DEMOCRACY THAT IS NOT LAWFUL HERE IN AMERICA.
You’ve been hijacked out of The Republic, hijacked into illegally paying taxes, hijacked into thinking you’re legal citizens, and you’ve been hijacked into fear so real that very few dare move with the truth once they know it.
This is why it is a must that you proclaim your Nationality! To reclaim what is ours.
If you have not already done so, it is that time to register for the Moorish School of Law & History courses.
“A Warning from the Prophet” Course Orientation: January 11, 2017 Instruction begins:January 18, 2017
Eight to ten week course. Fee: $125.00 – U.S. Postal Money Orders ONLY.
“BE IT KNOWN” Course Orientation: March 29, 2017 Instruction begins: April 5, 2017
Eight to ten week course. Fee: $125.00 – US Postal Money Orders ONLY.
“Nationality and ID Card” Course Orientation: June 14, 2017 Instruction begins:June 21, 2017
Eight to ten week course. Fee: $125.00 – US Postal Money Orders ONLY.
In order to register for these classes, an Application for Moorish American Citizenship MUST BE SUBMITTED. The Application is FREE because your Nationality is FREE of CHARGE!
PLEASE NOTE: ALL CLASSES ARE TAUGHT VIA TELECONFERENCE EVERY WEDNESDAY FROM 8:00 PM TO 10:00 PM EST, FROM THE COMFORT OF YOUR HOME. Also, please make note of the prerequisites for the attending the classes. A BLACK’S LAW DICTIONARY IS MANDATORY (3rd or Revised 4th Edition is recommended).
PLEASE REGISTER EARLY! Late registration will not be tolerated. Please get an early start for these upcoming courses.
There will be a Naturalization Ceremony in October on Baltimore, Maryland.All are invited. Please let us know if you would like attend. We would love to have you join us.
Sheikess A. Bellamy-Bey, National Registrar,
P. O. Box 23408,
Baltimore, Maryland 21203
Please use the SELF AUDIT sheet prior to mailing to ensure all your documents are included.
If you have questions please call 410-488-6858, Tuesday thru Thursday, 11:00 AM thru 4:00 PM Eastern Daylight Time. Do NOT call the National Registrar BEFORE nor AFTER normal business days & hours under ANY circumstances! If you are not in the Eastern Time zone, make sure that you ONLY call the National Registrar during normal business days and hours according to the Eastern Daylight Time. When you call, make sure you leave a detailed message. Otherwise, your call may not be returned.
To avoid unauthorized users: When you receive any passcode to get into the class conference from the National Registrar, you are NOT to give it out to anyone else under any circumstances. If anyone who communicates to you needs it, do NOT give it to them! They must call the National Registrar during her NORMAL BUSINESS HOURS and ONLY her to obtain it.
We will be monitoring the telephone numbers of those in the class conferences. No UNAUTHORIZED numbers are allowed! An authorized number is the number which one will use to get into the class conference that is on file with the National Registrar. Using a means of getting into the class conference other than a direct telephone will appear on the board as ANONYMOUS. All ANONYMOUS numbers on the conference board will be immediately dropped! So, please prepare yourself to prevent this.
We also invite you to join us on our regular Sunday School conference call from 7:30 PM to 9:30 PM EST, on conference call number 712-432-3900, code 717118#. Press *1 to mute your phone to remove any background noises and *1 to unmute your phone to make a comment or ask a question. Please announce your name and state where you are calling from.
We had a great Town Hall Call meeting this past Sunday evening. Some very relevant and important information was dispensed by both National Grand Shiek, Shieks, members, and honored guests. The discussion addressed issues which tie very closely into the split between us Moors today. I urge you all to take a close listen.
The questions on the floor were:
I would like to know do we need to authenticate the Birth Certificate and why we should not use UCC 1 financing statements? (Jump to 00:36:22)
What safeguards are Moorish Americans entitled to in the event of a federal emergency being declared as a result of obvious civil unrest, when so many of us live in such close proximity to the so-called negroes, blacks, coloreds and African Americans. If there were to be a government action similar to what happened to Tulsa, OK., would not Moors also certainly be adversely affected? (Jump to 1:19:00)
Words directly from our National Grand Shiek, Jump to 1:30:00.
Press the play button in the media player below. Enjoy!
Join us November 27, 2015 as we welcome National Grand Sheik Bratton Bey to the High Frequency Radio Network. Being in the Moorish Divine and National movement for 39 years to date, National Grand Sheik J. Bratton-Bey is holding the flame of the National side of the Moorish Divine and National movement, the teachings of the Four Proclamations of President Abraham Lincoln that pertains to securing birth rights and nationality, and the 13th Amendment with 20 sections that was resurrected by Grand Sheik Richardson Dingle-El to facilitate a uniform naturalization process so that those known as Blacks, Negro, Colored, etc; properly known historically as Moorish-Americans can be True American Citizens of the U.S.A. according to Constitutional Law and the Hebrew Code to stop the abuses they are suffering from throughout the nation. Along with the “genius citizens” that Prophet Noble Drew Ali spoke about that would come, as demonstrated by International Grand Sheik F. Turner-El and Grand Sheik Richardson Dingle-El; National Grand Sheik J. Bratton-Bey is continuing the mission of the Moorish Divine and National movement as the founder Prophet Noble Drew Ali had intended if h Moorish-Americans study, study, study and enforce the law (constitutional fold) to save the nation.
Become a naturalized citizen of the American Republic. Come and learn about our Great Divine and National Movement which was established by our Founder, Prophet Noble Drew Ali and how to proclaim your Nationality and become a True American Citizen.
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