Check out our Sunday School Chlidren representing our ancestors and the origins of the “cap & gown” their Ceremonies

June 24th, 2017   •      •   no comments   

Three of our Sunday School Children. Our youngest at his Naturalization Ceremony, another at his Kindergarten Graduation Ceremony, and the other at his High School Graduation Ceremony. Each wearing their Fezes at their ceremonies and honouring their ancestors.

The fez represents the womb of the woman and also a crown. The tassel represents 360 rays of light, the umbilical cord of the baby and the anchor of a ship. It’s the National headdress of the Moor, the same way that we have a Divine “and” National side.

Esoterically” the Garden of Eden is seen as a womb, place of grooming, hence Kindergarten, which is German for “children’s garden”. In ancient times the youth was taught about the foundation of the universe, how it works, the elements, hence ELEMENTary school. Afterwards one would need to learn higher science or get higher understanding, hence “High” School. Then graduate, “cross over” a stage and while wearing your symbolic fez, afterwards move your tassel from the masculine or right side and then move it to the feminine side or left side showing completion and honor to the feminine principle. The square graduation cap is also known as an operative mason’s mortarboard. A graduation “cap” is similar to how a “pyramid” has a “cap” stone, to show completion and the single “eye” of the higher force is activated within. The graduate also wears a gown, which is a priest/priestess garment of divinity. At this point one has symbolically gone through grades 1-12, which is symbolically going through the zodiac of the 12 signs. After getting “higher” science, the individual then goes on to learn about the mysteries of the universe, hence “University” education. At that level, one becomes a symbolic   Moor, because they get a “title” attached after their name based on their “degree” of bachelors, masters or doctorate, etc; which is symbolic of the Bey or El on the last name of a Moor, however the Bey or El is still higher than any graduate degree on the planet. The etymology of the word graduate means a “step, rise, degree” that someone 

has been “initiated” into by the way. After graduating from the university, one then becomes an “Alumni”. The word alumnus (plural alumni) come form the Latin noun that means “foster son, pupil” and is derived from the verb alere which means “to nourish”. In speculative masonry they have a widow son right? Remember I said that kindergarten is symbolic of the women’s womb, and that when you graduate you move your tassel from the right side to the left side that represents the woman? The woman is the first teacher of the child, so that takes care of the “to nourish” part, since we deal with Mother Earth, Mother Nature and Mother “Universe”. It will make sense later. What do graduates from the “University” call their college? Don’t they say “Alma mater”. Alma mater is Latin for “nourishing mother”. So how can people be allegedly afraid of the Illuminati, when they have been doing or participating in Illuminati rituals their entire life? The problem is Illuminati means enlightenment or an enlighten one; the fake Illuminated ones is using “ancient” science and symbols against the masses who are ignorant. Let There Be Light!




Engagement announcement of Sister Carolyn Mance-El and Sheik Lawrence Young-Bey

June 18th, 2017   •      •   no comments   

Giving All Praises to Allah!

At 12:01 A.M on the Earth-Day of Sister Carolyn Mance-El, January 16th, Sheik Young-Bey surprised her with a beautiful ring and a request of making her his wife. Their hearts have always been joined together, but it was the journey of their separate lives that would eventually place them together at Allah’s appointed time.

The images below actually came first and were taken on they first cruise together in 2016.

Subordinate Temple #1 has been dissolved

June 12th, 2017   •      •   no comments   

Due to reasons that will not be made public at this time, Subordinate Temple #1 (located in the New York Republic, Brooklyn) Charter has been revoked. All Members/Citizens of The Moorish Science Temple© The Divine and National Movement of North America, Inc; #13© The Moorish American National Republic who domicile in the New York Republic and whom are affiliated with said Temple are still Members/Citizens with all Rights and Privileges in tact.

If you have any questions regarding this matter, contact National Grand Sheik Joel Bratton-Bey @ 410-369-8874. Or, feel free to email him @

Performing Shahada

May 27th, 2017   •      •   no comments   

“…I do hereby declare that YOU are a Moslem under the divine laws of the Holy Koran of Mecca…Noble Drew Ali, the Prophet…” – excerpted from our Nationality and Identification Card (emphasis added) .

One of our Divine Ministers, Sheik Raamiah-El, administrated Shahada for our Citizens/students/guests. Citizens from all over the country participated, preparing themselves for Ramadan, a 30-day fast. We will push through hungry pangs, thirst, and fatigue in a spirit of Love and humility. We will become more flexible in body and spirit. A month to reflect, regroup and recharge.
Allah is kind.
Listen to the Recording of us Performing Shahada

Click the play button

10th Century Moorish King of Croatia

May 23rd, 2017   •      •   no comments   

The republic of Croatia is a sovereign state between Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean. Ruled by people of Moorish decent during the 10th century. Way before the 1500’s, 1400’s, 1300’s, etc. We ruled Europe and civilized the Caucasian.

These Moorish Moslems literally civilized the wild tribes from the Caucus who had ran rampant throughout Western Europe after being pushed into this region by the invading Huns. These wild warring Caucasian tribes did not establish any civilization to pick up the pieces after they brought down the Western Roman Empire. As a result of there being little to no intellectual stimulation in Europe, the continent fell into the Dark Ages until the 8th century C.E. when the Moors arrived.  The European “Renaissance” was only possible through the Moorish Moslem cultural domination, which lasted 700 years.  During this time, highly advanced and civilized cultures permeated throughout Western Europe via what was Moslem controlled Spain.

Silver and Gold!! Our true currency

May 14th, 2017   •      •   no comments   

“Money doesn’t make the man, it is free national standards and power that makes a man and a nation. The wealth of all national governments, gold and silver and commerce belong to the citizens alone and without your national citizenship by name and principles, you have no true wealth” – Noble Drew Ali

Looking to acquire some gold and silver? As always the mint of the country you are in is your first best bet; or their authorized seller. So that means the U.S. Mint –

Another one that sells a variety of different silver, gold & metal products from around the world is Apmex –

Clearing Up The Reincarnated Prophet Confusion

May 4th, 2017   •      •   no comments   

Reincarnated Prophet is a “title” and “degree” based on demonstration. When we study charters, we see that when the founder of the charter passes away, that corporation, organization can become a stand still or void unless there is a continuation. My Grand Sheik explains it in this way; the Vatican copied what Prophet Noble Drew Ali did in 1928, when they made their move in 1929. The Vatican also has a Divine side and National side. The reason why the Popes take on a Holy Name is for the Divine side, a Title and/or degree. The next reason is according to the Vatican belief, their belief is that Jesus resurrected, and in that Vatican belief, they represent the living Christ here on earth, because if the Christ is dead, their Christian movement is dead. They are a chartered organization, the Moorish Science Temple is a charter organization, the same applies to us. Who is there to represent the founder of the charter when they pass away? No matter what Moors may say, think or feel, or may not like how Sheik John Givens-El demonstrated that degree of understanding, he was demonstrating that understanding of keeping the movement alive and in its true intention. Sheik John Givens-El is said to have been made an adept in the time of the Prophet. You must look again at the “signs” Moor, out of everyone, why did the Prophet choose Sheik John Givens-El to be his chauffeur and mechanic? If he is indeed a Prophet he knew what was going to happen to him, his movement and position the movement and people in place. Besides the Prophet’s wives (two separate obligations at two separate times, not at the same time), his executive adept officers, the person who spent the most time with the Prophet was Sheik John Givens-El. Sheik John Givens-El spent days, nights, hours with the Prophet, who else would know where the movement was going and what the next “national” chess moves would be? So Moors back then and also now may not understand those “keys” or may not like how Sheik John Givens-El took on his role and title of “Reincarnated Prophet”, but it was not his name, it was a demonstration, degree and “understanding” of securing the “national side” and keeping the charter “activate”. Sheik John Givens-El was the one that gave Richardson Dingle-El and his brother Timothy Dingle-El the green light to go the “Pentagon” and set up the Moorish National Bureau of Vital Statistics for ALL Moors to properly and uniformly proclaim their nationality under our own jurisdiction and also capture the foundation of Act 6 that the founder Prophet Noble Drew Ali was demonstrating which is the Proclamations of President Abraham Lincoln and the 13th Amendment with 20 sections. In 1928 and the time of the Prophet there was common law, in 1933 with the New Deal we went into commercial law. The process of just getting a Bey or El on your name and having a Temple card “only” is void. Hence the verbal statement: Sister A. Brown El of Temple 4 and 25 said the Holy Prophet said, “Your Nationality Card is going to change on you in your pocket.” By not knowing this demonstration and degrees, this is why Moors have ran to the UCC/UCC-1 and United Nation Declarations, which is not in line with the “constitutional fold” that Prophet Noble Drew Ali pointed out. These are the degrees of the “National” side that Sheik John Givens-El and the Dingle-El brothers was on that most Moors are not aware of or understand. So Sheik John Givens-El having the title of Reincarnated Prophet is a degree and title, not a name. We study law, demonstration, not man. Out of all the movements at that time, Sheik John Givens-El faction was always seen by other Moors as keeping true to the foundation and intention of the founder and demonstrating the National side. So the Reincarnated Prophet in this “context”, “condition” and “subject matter” is not dealing with physical rebirth, but the rebirth of the “movement” and its “direction”. This demonstration can be seen by understanding and studying the degrees of our charter, charter law, charter in international law, constitutional law, understanding the degrees of Our Authority, 101 questions, Divine Constitution and Holy Koran. This information is also documented and shown in the book “The Negro, the Black, the Moor” which shows since the 1940’s securing the national side was being demonstrated, the big chunk of Moorish history most Moors dont know like the uniform lawful and constitutional process that is already set up for Moors in this day and time to naturalize under Act 6, the laws of freedom (Proclamations of President Abraham Lincoln), ancient Hebrew code, the 13th Amendment with “20 sections” which Prophet Noble Drew Ali was demonstrating –

This information is also being taught in our Moorish School of Law and History which was set up in the 1970’s. The National side of our Divine and National movement is not being taught, even by some of these famous, popular or well known Moors and Moabitess most may know of. All those who are new, navigating by themselves without a Temple or Moorish Government, all Moors, Sheiks, Sheikess, Grand Sheiks needs to be re-educated about the National side. Our Moorish School of Law and History is open to all Moors, no matter your affiliation, association or faction. The forms can be found on our website. Moorish American National Republic website: – Send Your Questions To: and they will be answered in the order it was received on our Sunday conference call. Information about the call is also on our website.

” I use to be one of those Moors who thought John Givens-El was out his mind when he took on that title, but I never asked any Moor who was under that demonstration why he did that. So I ignored those Moors for years. Until it was explained with clarity, then I understood. There is a big chunk of Moorish history that is not known or beings taught. How many Moors know about Moors going to the Pentagon, communicating with congress, Federal agencies? The book mentioned in the post brings clarity and those documented proof. I am proud to be a member and Citizen under the line of Prophet Noble Drew Ali, Prophet Noble Drew Ali Reincarnated John Givens-El, the Grand Sheik Richardson Dingle-El and International Grand Sheik F. Turner-El connection and under my current Grand Sheik J. Bratton-Bey”.

“All confusion within our movement can be cleaned up, just clarity and understanding must be shown. I have studied Clock of Destiny information, Great Seal information, I use to be under the C. Kirkman-Bey faction in Brooklyn a few years ago, but the John Givens-El demonstration and line was never explained. After the Prophet, John Givens-El in his time and F. Turner-El in his time had the most followers, and we hardly hear about these Moors. As far as we know, Grand Sheik Richardson Dingle-El is the first Moor on record with the government to be classified as Moroccan born in America and White on his drivers license. The National side demonstration of Moorish Science Temple The Divine and National Movement of North America, Inc; #13 The Moorish American National Republic should be looked into”.

“For after the Prophet transcended, the internal war with negro minded Moors started. The truth is no Moors should really be holding any faction up because by having “factions”, ALL the Moors are out of line. However Moors can be inline if they are under the foundation of the Hurds Smith Revised Statute, NOT a 501c3 Temple, NOT a non-for profit Temple; which will then enable them to activate the power of the charter, mandate and trust and be inline with the Proclamations of President Abraham Lincoln and the 13th Amendment with “20 sections” which backs up the process of proclaiming ones nationality lawfully and constitutionally which the Prophet was demonstrating if Moors understand the degrees of Act 6; which is linked to Our Authority, what is on the back of the 101 questionnaire, which is also in degrees; and understand Moorish de jure jurisdiction. From what I can put together, brother E. Mealy-El was seen by the Moors as being the next in charge because locally another Sheik was in charge if the Prophet was not around, but when the Prophet traveled nationally, E. Mealy-El was left in charge by him. Also when there was confusion, and the prophet had to handle the whole court situation and fight against Moors then who was trying to take the Prophet’s spot, specifically Sheik Claude D. Greene-Bey and other Moors. The Prophet around that time is said to have told E. Mealy-El: Bro. Edward Mealy El stated that the Holy prophet told him “YOU DO WHAT I TELL YOU, NEVER MIND WHAT THEY SAY, I HAVE GIVEN YOU LAW, KORAN, AND CONSTITUTION, AND I EXPECT YOU TO ENFORCE MY LAW, AND DO WHAT I SAY, NEVER MIND WHAT THEY SAY OR DO. THEY CAN DO NOTHING BUT DIE.” The Prophet was speaking about the negro minded Moors who thought they knew more than the Prophet and was working to take him out of his position based on their delusions of grandeur. After the Prophet passed, C. Kirkman-Bey and the other rebels plan on taking the movement over, so they had a vote to see if he or E. Mealy-El should be in charge of the movement. Being a law man, E Mealy-El agreed. When a vote was finally taken, two-thirds of the delegates voted Mealy-El in as Grand Sheik with C. Kirkman-Bey as his Grand Advisor. Then there was a split. Then C. Kirkman-Bey started his changing of the movement. E Mealy-El started his own faction after that. C. Kirkman-Bey was also kidnapped by some Moors and there was a shoot out with the police. There was also other fights, shootings, stabbings over the documents of the Prophet and more splits. C. Kirkman-Bey and E. Mealy-El went to court and other events took place. John Givens-El now stood up to bring back the true intention of the Prophet and direction of the movement, because out of them all, he certainly knew where the movement was going. That whole thing about him falling down while working on his car and the signs being in his eye is noted, however should not be the main focus, its his demonstration on what he was trying to do and actually did because of the confusion of the Moors. Some of that confusion has rolled over till this day. That is why the greatest movement on this planet since 1913 is in turmoil and also being attacked. That same energy back then is around now and the descendants of the negro minded Moors from back then are still around”.

” Much of the confusion can be easily cleared up, some of it is unnecessary, a good portion of it is based on how many Moors came into the movement and their own personal agenda. However Prophet Noble Drew Ali already set things up and people in position and was even talking about the confusion that will come and who would resurrect it, the children, unborn and next generation. The repair, resurrection and demonstration is on the way though”.

14 Presidents BEFORE George Washington

January 19th, 2017   •      •   no comments   

The Continental Congress was the early form of Government of the U.S.A. for 16 years (1774-1789). It was made up of 55 Representatives (35 Moors, 20 European Sons) from the original 13 States. The Continental Congress first came together to protest certain measures of the British Parliament. It also urged the colonist to arm themselves in defense of the Rights. Before this meeting closed, the Delegates agreed to meet a second time. By the time the second meeting was held, the American Revolutionary War had started.

   These 35 Moors stemmed from five of the Thirteen States: New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, and North Carolina (SEE Judge Charles Curtis’ Dissenting Opinion vs. Justice Taney concerning the DRED SCOTT Decision).

   The United States of America did not have an official written Government until the Articles of Confederation was signed in 1781 which was right before it won its Independence from Britain.


1. Peyton Randolph (1721-1775)- A pre-Revolutionary American Politician born in James City County [Williamsburg], Virginia and educated at the College of William and Mary. An influential member of the Virginia House of Burgesses from 1748 until his death. In 1764, he rallied the opposition of the Burgesses (Legislators) against the Threatened Stamp Act. In 1766, he became Speaker of the House which he retained for the rest of his life. Randolph was appointed to the first Continental Congress at Philadelphia County and served as its President in September of 1774 and, then afterwards in May of 1775 as he served again as the 3rd President which is the 1st President of the Second Continental Congress.

2. Arthur Henry Middleton (1742-1787)- A Planter, Legislator, Signer of the Declaration of Independence, and one of the leaders in the controversies that preceded the outbreak of the American Revolution, born in Middleton Place near Charleston County, South Carolina. After completing his education in England, he returned to South Carolina in 1763 and was elected to its Legislature, the House of Assembly. He served as President of the Continental Congress in October 1774. Between 1775 and 1776, he was a member of the Council of Safety which was a committee that provided leadership for the State’s preparations for Revolution. He served on the Legislative Committee that drafted its State’s Constitution and was a delegate to the Continental Congress between 1776 to 1778. At the Siege of Charleston in 1780, he served in the Militia and was taken prisoner when the City fell to the British. He was sent to Saint Johns County [Saint Augustine], Florida as a P.O.W. After being exchanged in 1781, he became a member of the Continental Congress, placed back in the House of Assembly, and went on the original Board of Trustees of the College of Charleston.

3. John Hancock (1737-1793)- An American Patriot, Statesman, first to sign the Declaration of Independence, born in Norfolk County [Braintree (Now part of Quincy)], Massachusetts and educated at Harvard College (Now Harvard University). After graduating in 1754, he joined the Mercentile Firm of his Uncle and Guardian, the Colonial Businessman Thomas Hancock. In 1764, he inherited the Business and a substantial fortune. He was elected to the State’s Legislature two years later. He also served as the President of the United States in November of 1785 to June of 1786. He was member of the Continental Congress from 1775 to 1780 serving as a Presiding Officer during the first two years until October 1777. He was the first Governor of Massachusetts from 1780 to 1785 and 1789 to his death. He initially opposed the Constitution for the United States of America but later supported it and served as President of the Massachusetts Convention that approved this Constitution.

4. Henry Laurens (1724-1792)- An American Colonial Statesman born in Charleston County, South Carolina, where he was educated and became a successful Merchant there. In 1764, he became a Planter. He served almost continuously in the Colonial Assembly from 1757 to 1774. In 1775, he was President of the State’s Legislature then Vice President of South Carolina from 1776 to 1777 then to become a member of the Continental Congress serving as President starting in November of 1777 to December of 1778. Congress appointed him as an Envoy to negotiate a Treaty with the Dutch but he was captured at Sea by the British and imprisoned in the Tower of London. In 1781, he was exchanged for British General Charles Cornwallis who had surrendered. Late in 1782, Laurens was a signer of the Preliminary Peace Treaty ending the American Revolution and later returned to South Carolina.

5. John Jay (1745-1829)- American Statesman, Jurist, and the first Chief Justice of the United States of America born in New York City and educated at King’s College (Now Columbia University). He was admitted to the Bar in 1768 and represented the point of view of the American Merchants in protesting British restrictions on the Commercial activities of the Colonies. He was elected to the Continental Congress in 1774 and again in 1775. He drafted the first State’s Constitution and was appointed Chief Justice of the State in 1777. The following year, he was again elected to the Continental Congress and chosen as President. In Paris in 1782, he was one of the Commissioners who negotiated the Treaty of Paris ending the American Revolution. From 1784 to 1789, he was Secretary of Foreign Affairs. The ineffectiveness of the Articles of Confederation led him to become a proponent of a strong National Government. With Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, he wrote the series of Articles called ‘The Federalist’ which urged Ratification of the Constitution for the U.S.A. In 1789, President George Washington appointed him as Chief Justice. In 1794 when war with Britain threatened due to controversies over the Treaty of Paris, he was appointed by Washington to negotiate a settlement. He went to Great Britain and concluded the agreement known as the ‘Jay Treaty’. On his return, he discovered that during his absence he had been elected Governor of New York State. He resigned from the Court and served as Governor from 1795 to 1801. He spent the rest of his life in retirement.

6. Samuel Huntington (1731-1796)- President of the Continental Congress and the Congress of the Confederation from September 1779 to July 1781, signer of the Declaration of Independence, and Governor of his place of birth, Connecticut, where he served in its Assembly in 1765 and was appointed as a Judge of the Superior Court in 1774. He was a member of the Governor’s Council from 1775 to 1783 after which time, he returned to Connecticut to become a Chief Justice of its State Supreme Court in 1784, then becoming a Lieutenant Governor in 1785, then becoming a Governor in 1786. He was re-elected each year thereafter until his death.

7. Thomas McKean (1734-1817)- President of the Continental Congress from July 1781 to November 1781 serving as both a delegate to the Continental Congress and the Congress of the Confederation starting at 1774 to 1783. He was a Delaware signer of the Declaration of Independence and was Governor of Pennsylvania from 1799 to 1808 during which times, he restrained Radical Politicians whose plans were to reduce the Commonwealth to a condition of Anarchy. Born in Chester County [New London], Pennsylvania. He studied Law and wrote most of the Delaware State Constitution.

8. John Hanson (1721-1783)- Born in Maryland being a Moorish Patriot for this State in the American Revolution. When the Articles of Confederation were ratified on March 1, 1781, no elections were held or even discussed for selecting a new president. Instead, Samuel Huntington continued to serve as President of Congress until he asked to be relieved due to ill health on July 6, 1781. On July 9, Samuel Johnston was selected as Huntington’s replacement, but he declined the office the next day, and so Thomas McKean was elected as the next presiding officer. This is the reason why John Hanson was classified as the First President of the New Nation under the Articles of Confederation. He was elected by Congress as the President of the United States in Congress Assembled, therefore, being the First President of the United States. As a member of the State’s Assembly from 1757, he became active in the resistance to British Tax measures in the 1760’s and was an early supporter of Independence. As a delegate to the Continental Congress and the Congress of the Confederation from 1780 to 1782, he signed the Articles of Confederation and played an important part in persuading New York and Virginia to give up their claims to Western Territory.

9. Elias Boudinot (1740-1821)- Born in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, was a prominent Patriot during the American Revolution. Although he initially believed that “Firm dependence in the Mother Country [was] essential”, he was converted to the cause of Independence and served twice from 1777 to 1778 and 1781 to 1784. He was President of the United States from 1782 to 1783. He helped bring about the Ratification by New Jersey of the Constitution for the United States of America and was a member of Congress under this Constitution from 1789 to 1795. He was a Director of the U.S. Mint from 1795 to 1805 and the founder and the first President of the American Bible Society from 1816 to 1821. He authored the books “A Star in the West” and “Age of Revelation”. He argued for the rights of Asiatic citizens, and sponsored students to the Board School for Tribal Moors (Native Americans) in Connecticut. One of these, a young Cherokee named Gallegina Watie, stayed with him while traveling to the school. The two so impressed each other that Gallegina asked for and was given permission to use his name, and was afterward known as Elias Boudinot.

10. Thomas Mifflin (1744-1800)- An American Statesman and Soldier born in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, was educated at the College of Philadelphia (Now called the University of Pennsylvania). In the agitation over the British policy preceding the American Revolution, he championed Colonial Rights and was elected a member of the First Continental Congress. After the outbreak of hostilities, he was appointed Aide-De-Camp to General George Washington and later the Quartermaster General of the Revolutionary Army which was a Post he resigned after charges of mismanagement were brought against him. In 1777, he was accused of being a Ringleader of the “Conway Cabal” which was a group that aimed at substituting General Horatio Gates for Washington as Commander-In-Chief. This intrigue failed. He severed his connection with the Army in 1779 and later became a delegate to Congress and, afterwards, became the President of the United States from 1783 to 1784. He was also a member of the Federal Constitutional Convention in 1787 and the first State Governor of Pennsylvania from 1790 to 1799.

11. Richard Henry Lee (1732-1794)- President of the United States from November 1784 to November 1785, was a Leader of the American Revolution. He was brother of Arthur and Francis Lee. He was born in Westmoreland County [Stratford], Virginia. He entered the Virginia House of Burgesses in 1758 and in his Freshman speech proposed a Resolution restricting the Importation of Slaves. He remained a member of the Virginia House until 1775. With Thomas Jefferson and Patrick Henry, he was prominent in defending the Rights of the Colonies against Great Britain. He was among those who proposed the Committees of Correspondence that organized American resistance to British Political and Economic pressures. In 1773, he became a member of that Committee in Virginia and was a delegate to the Continental Congress from 1774 to 1779. On June 7th, 1776, he offered a Resolution that ultimately gave rise to the Declaration of Independence which he later signed. In the debates on the Constitution for the U.S.A., he opposed the views of the Federalist Party because he felt that this Constitution, as proposed, infringed on the States’ Rights. In defense of his principles, he proposed the Tenth Amendment which was finally adopted. He was a United States Senator from March 1789 to October 1792 and was President Pro Tempore from April 1792 to October 1792. He died at his Plantation.

12. Nathaniel Gorham (1738-1796)- President of the United States from May 1786 to November 1786. Born in Suffolk County [Charlestown (part of Boston)], Massachusetts. He was a signer of the Constitution for the U.S.A. He served in the State’s Legislature from 1771 to 1775 and also served several terms of the Continental Congress. In the Constitutional Convention, he became President of the Committee of the whole for several weeks and urged a strong central Government.

13. Arthur Saint Clair (1737-1818)- President of the United States from February 1787 to November 1787. He was born in Scotland, he served in the British Army from 1757 to 1762 during the French and Indian War before settling in Pennsylvania where he held local Office. He was a Politician and an American soldier serving in the Continental Army from 1775 to 1781 during the American Revolutionary War where he rose to the rank of Major General but lost his command after a controversial retreat. He also was a Senior General of the U.S. Army in 1791 and appointed a Governor of a certain number of Territories during the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. He was a member of the Pennsylvania Council of Censors in 1783, and was elected a delegate to the Confederation Congress, serving from November 1785 to November 1787. Chaos ruled the day in early 1787 with Shays’ Rebellion in full force and the states refusing to settle land disputes or contribute to the now six year-old Federal Government. He died in poverty.

14. Cyrus Griffin (1749-1810)- President of the United States from January 1788 to March 1789 was born in the Commonwealth of Virginia and served as a Lawyer. He was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates and a delegate to the Continental Congress from 1778 to 1781. Griffin was president of the Supreme Court of the Admiralty from its creation until its abolition, was commissioner to the Creek Nation in 1789, and was Judge of the United States District Court of Virginia from December 1789, until his death. 

There is No “Fourteenth Amendment”!

January 18th, 2017   •      •   no comments   

There is No “Fourteenth Amendment”!
Posted By: RumorMail
Date: Saturday, 4-Jan-2014 23:40:43

There is No “Fourteenth Amendment”! By David Lawrence U.S. News & World Report September 27, 1957

A MISTAKEN BELIEF — that there is a valid article in the Constitution known as the “Fourteenth Amendment” — is responsible for the Supreme Court decision of 1954 and the ensuing controversy over desegregation in the public schools of America. No such amendment was ever legally ratified by three fourths of the States of the Union as required by the Constitution itself. The so-called “Fourteenth Amendment” was dubiously proclaimed by the Secretary of State on July 20, 1868. The President shared that doubt. There were 37 States in the Union at the time, so ratification by at least 28 was necessary to make the amendment an integral part of the Constitution. Actually, only 21 States legally ratified it. So it failed of ratification.

The undisputed record, attested by official journals and the unanimous writings of historians, establishes these events as occurring in 1867 and 1868:
Outside the South, six States — New Jersey, Ohio, Kentucky, California, Delaware and Maryland — failed to ratify the proposed amendment.

In the South, ten States — Texas, Arkansas, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi and Louisiana — by formal action of their legislatures, rejected it under the normal processes of civil law.

A total of 16 legislatures out of 37 failed legally to ratify the “Fourteenth Amendment.”
Congress — which had deprived the Southern States of their seats in the Senate — did not lawfully pass the resolution of submission in the first instance.

The Southern States which had rejected the amendment were coerced by a federal statute passed in 1867 that took away the right to vote or hold office from all citizens who had served in the Confederate Army. Military governors were appointed and instructed to prepare the roll of voters. All this happened in spite of the presidential proclamation of amnesty previously issued by the President. New legislatures were thereupon chosen and forced to “ratify” under penalty of continued exile from the Union. In Louisiana, a General sent down from the North presided over the State legislature.

Abraham Lincoln had declared many times that the Union was “inseparable” and “indivisible.” After his death, and when the war was over, the ratification by the Southern States of the Thirteenth Amendment, abolishing slavery, had been accepted as legal. But Congress in the 1867 law imposed the specific conditions under which the Southern States would be “entitled to representation in Congress.”

Congress, in passing the 1867 law that declared the Southern States could not have their seats in either the Senate or House in the next session unless they ratified the “Fourteenth Amendment,” took an unprecedented step. No such right — to compel a State by an act of Congress to ratify a constitutional amendment — is to be found anywhere in the Constitution. Nor has this procedure ever been sanctioned by the Supreme Court of the United States.

President Andrew Johnson publicly denounced this law as unconstitutional. But it was passed over his veto.

Secretary of State Seward was on the spot in July 1868 when the various “ratifications” of a spurious nature were placed before him. The legislatures of Ohio and New Jersey had notified him that they rescinded their earlier action of ratification. He said in his official proclamation that he was not authorized as Secretary of State “to determine and decide doubtful questions as to the authenticity of the organization of State legislatures or as to the power of any State legislature to recall a previous act or resolution of ratification.” He added that the amendment was valid “if the resolutions of the legislatures of Ohio and New Jersey, ratifying the aforesaid amendment, are to be deemed as remaining of full force and effect, notwithstanding the subsequent resolutions of the legislatures of these States.” This was a very big “if.” It will be noted that the real issue, therefore, is not only whether the forced “ratification” by the ten Southern States was lawful, but whether the withdrawal by the legislatures of Ohio and New Jersey — two Northern States — was legal. The right of a State, by action of its legislature, to change its mind at any time before the final proclamation of ratification is issued by the Secretary of State has been confirmed in connection with other constitutional amendments.

The Oregon Legislature in October 1868 — three months after the Secretary’s proclamation was issued — passed a rescinding resolution, which argued that the “Fourteenth Amendment” had not been ratified by three fourths of the States and that the “ratifications” in the Southern States were “usurpations, unconstitutional, revolutionary and void” and that, “until such ratification is completed, any State has a right to withdraw its assent to any proposed amendment.”

What do the historians say about all this? The Encyclopedia Americana states:
“Reconstruction added humiliation to suffering…. Eight years of crime, fraud, and corruption followed and it was State legislatures composed of Negroes, carpetbaggers and scalawags who obeyed the orders of the generals and ratified the amendment.”

W. E. Woodward, in his famous work, “A New American History?” published in 1936, says:
“To get a clear idea of the succession of events let us review [President Andrew] Johnson’s actions in respect to the ex-Confederate States.

“In May, 1865, he issued a Proclamation of Amnesty to former rebels. Then he established provisional governments in all the Southern States. They were instructed to call Constitutional Conventions. They did. New State governments were elected. White men only had the suffrage the Fifteenth Amendment establishing equal voting rights had not yet been passed]. Senators and Representatives were chosen, but when they appeared at the opening of Congress they were refused admission. The State governments, however, continued to function during 1866.

“Now we are in 1867. In the early days of that year [Thaddeus] Stevens brought in, as chairman of the House Reconstruction Committee, a bill that proposed to sweep all the Southern State governments into the wastebasket. The South was to be put under military rule.

“The bill passed. It was vetoed by Johnson and passed again over his veto. In the Senate it was amended in such fashion that any State could escape from military rule and be restored to its full rights by ratifying the Fourteenth Amendment and admitting black as well as white men to the polls.”

In challenging its constitutionality, President Andrew Johnson said in his veto message:
“I submit to Congress whether this measure is not in its whole character, scope and object without precedent and without authority, in palpable conflict with the plainest provisions of the Constitution, and utterly destructive of those great principles of liberty and humanity for which our ancestors on both sides of the Atlantic have shed so much blood and expended so much treasure.”

Many historians have applauded Johnson’s words. Samuel Eliot Morison and Henry Steele Commager, known today as “liberals,” wrote in their book, “The Growth of the American Republic”:
“Johnson returned the bill with a scorching message arguing the unconstitutionality of the whole thing, and most impartial students have agreed with his reasoning.”

James Truslow Adams, another noted historian, writes in his “History of the United States”:
“The Supreme Court had decided three months earlier, in the Milligan case, … that military courts were unconstitutional except under such war conditions as might make the operation of civil courts impossible, but the President pointed out in vain that practically the whole of the new legislation was unconstitutional. … There was even talk in Congress of impeaching the Supreme Court for its decisions! The legislature had run amok and was threatening both the Executive and the Judiciary.”

Actually, President Johnson was impeached, but the move failed by one vote in the Senate.

The Supreme Court, in case after case, refused to pass on the illegal activities involved in “ratification.” It said simply that they were acts of the “political departments of the Government.” This, of course, was a convenient device of avoidance. The Court has adhered to that position ever since Reconstruction Days.
Andrew C. McLaughlin, whose “Constitutional History of the United States” is a standard work, writes:
“Can a State which is not a State and not recognized as such by Congress, perform the supreme duty of ratifying an amendment to the fundamental law? Or does a State — by congressional thinking — cease to be a State for some purposes but not for others?”

This is the tragic history of the so-called “Fourteenth Amendment” — a record that is a disgrace to free government and a “government of law.”

Isn’t the use of military force to override local government what we deplored in Hungary?
It is never too late to correct injustice. The people of America should have an opportunity to pass on an amendment to the Constitution that sets forth the right of the Federal Government to control education and regulate attendance at public schools either with federal power alone or concurrently with the States.
That’s the honest way, the just way to deal with the problem of segregation or integration in the schools. Until such an amendment is adopted, the “Fourteenth Amendment” should be considered as null and void.

There is only one supreme tribunal — it is the people themselves. Their sovereign will is expressed through the procedures set forth in the Constitution itself.

[END] [OCR’d text from U.S. News & World Report, September 27, 1957, page 140 et seq.]

The Quattro Mori: The Four Moors

November 15th, 2016   •      •   no comments   

One of Livorno’s most famous landmarks is a monument located near the Port of Livorno. This work of art, which dates back to the Renaissance period, is called “Monumento dei quattro mori” (Monument of the Four Moors). This powerful monument, depicting four Moors, was dedicated to Grand Duke Ferdinando I.
I Quattro Mori –At the end of the XVI century the works for the realization of the new fortified city of Livorno started. In order to celebrate this enterprise and the triumphs of the Order of the knights of Santo Stefano against barbaric pirates, Ferdinando de’Medici erected a monument in his honor. The statue of the Granduca was commissioned to the sculptor Giovanni Bandini, than realized it in Carrara in 1595; it was moved to Livorno in 1601. Subsequently, in 1621 Pietro Tacca completed the monument with the four chained Moors, that the sculptor made between 1623 and 1626. The monument is constituted by the Four Moors in bronze at the base of a high pedestal, over which there is the statue of Ferdinando I. The Granduca is represented with the uniform of the Order of the knights of Santo Stefano, the military institution founded in order to fight the Ottomans and the pirates in the Mediterranean Sea. The Four Moors constitute the most important part of the work: the emphasized torsions and the grimaces of pain represent the condition of imprisonment of the subjects, with great realism and elegance. (source: Tuscany Travels)
The Four Moors is the oldest and most popular monument in Leghorn, it symbolizes the winner of Medici against pirates in the Mediterranean Sea.
The monument consist of two parts, one in marble and the other one in bronze. The former, in Carrara marble, shows Ferdinando I dei Medici in the uniform of the Order of the Knights of St. Stephan, a navy establishment to fight the piracy which was an obstacle to free trade and the development of the growning Medicean port. Created by the Florentine sculptor Giovanni Bandini, it was terminated in 1595, but only in 1617 the statue was placed on its pedestal.
The Four Moors, works of considerable merit by the Carrara sculptor Pietro Tacca, a pupil of Giambologna, were added between 1623 and 1626.

In 1861 the statue was moved about 20 mt to its present position. On the occasion it was completely renovated. During the Second World War it was once again dismantled to protect it from aerial bombardments. At the end of the war it was returned to its place. (source: Geocaching)

The Four Moors – a symbol of Livorno Overlooking the old Medici Port, right at the port end of Via Grande, you cannot fail to notice the statue known as I Quattro Mori (‘the four moors’) which is undoubtedly Livorno’s most famous landmark. The monument, which is a symbol of Livorno, was carried out in two stages. The upper part, portraying Ferdinando I, the Medici Grand Duke, was sculpted in marble by Giovanni Bandini by order of Ferdinando’s son, Cosimo II, to honour his father. It was erected in 1617, nine years after Grand Duke Ferdinando’s death.
The four bronze moors were added between 1623 and 1626 and are the work of the Carrara sculptor, Pietro Tacca, who was Giambologna’s greatest pupil. He used two slaves as a model for his work and it is said that in return for posing for several months these two men were then set free.
The younger of the two moved to Florence and started a family there. On holidays he used to bring his family to Livorno so that they could admire his bronze likeness!
The whole monument is supposed to represent Tuscany’s victories over pirate attacks.
Province of Livorno, Toscana (Tuscany), Italy.  This is a map of Italy that identifies the province of Livorno. The province of Livorno is a part of the Toscana (Tuscany) region.
cagliari photos

The Municipio with Sardinian Flag (Cagliari Photos}.  The Municipio, or town hall, of Cagliari displays three flags – European Union, Italy, and Sardinia, the flag with the Quattro Mori, or four Moors.

The Quattro Mori on Cagliari Municipio (Cagliari Photos). The quattro mori, the symbol of Sardegna, are displayed atop the Cagliari Municipio, or town hall.

Sardinian Flag Quattro Mori

Map of the Province of Sassari, Sardegna (Sardinia), Italy.  The province of Sassari is a part of the Sardegna (Sardinia) region.

Fountain of the Four Moors: Fontana Dei Quattro Mori, Marino, Lazio, Italia
The Fountain of the Four Moors during the Italian Grape Festival

Lazio (Latium), Italy. Lazio is a region in the center of Italy along the Tyrrhenian Sea; with five provinces, one of which is Roma (Rome).